## Mathematics

The kindergarten math program that we use is Bridges. This is a very activity-oriented program which promotes mathematical thinking and differentiation. Through this program, we will utilize a guided math approach, which aims to meet each child where s/he is at.

There are two critical areas for mathematics in Kindergarten:

1. Represent and compare whole numbers. Students use numbers, including written numerals, to represent quantities and to solve quantitative problems, such as counting objects in a set; counting out a given number of objects; comparing sets or numerals; and modeling simple joining and separating situations with sets of objects, or eventually with equations such as 5 + 2 = 7 and 7 – 2 = 5. (Kindergarten students should see addition and subtraction equations, and student writing of equations in kindergarten is encouraged, but it is not required.) Students choose, combine, and apply effective strategies for answering quantitative questions, including quickly recognizing the cardinalities of small sets of objects, counting and producing sets of given sizes, counting the number of objects in combined sets, or counting the number of objects that remain in a set after some are taken away.
2. Describe space and shapes.  Students describe their physical world using geometric ideas (e.g., shape, orientation, spatial relations) and vocabulary. They identify, name, and describe basic two-dimensional shapes, such as squares, triangles, circles, rectangles, and hexagons, presented in a variety of ways (e.g., with different sizes and orientations), as well as three-dimensional shapes such as cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres. They use basic shapes and spatial reasoning to model objects in their environment and to construct more complex shapes (NGA & CCSSO, 2010, p. 13)..

At Avoca West, Kindergarten students explore these ideas in the following sequence:

 Focus Standards Time Frame Unit 1:  Position Language K.G.1 (Position Language) 1-2 weeks Unit 2:  Counting 0-10 Objects K.CC.4 (Understand counting 1 to 1, last number said is total, 1 more) K.CC.1 (Count by ones & tens) K.CC.3 (Write 0-20, represent # objects with numeral) 3 weeks Unit 3:  Counting 0-20 Objects K.CC.2 (Count on from any number) K.CC.3 (Write 0-20, represent # objects with numeral) K.CC.5 (Find how many by counting up to 10 scattered, 20 organized, count out quantity) 4-5 weeks Unit 4:  Comparing & Measuring K.CC.6 (greater than/Less than/equal with objects) K.CC.7 (Compare numerals within 10) K.MD.1 (Measureable attributes) K.MD.2 (Compare 2 objects using comparison language) K.MD.3 (Sort and count) 3-4 weeks Unit 5:  Combinations within 5 K.OA.1 (Represent + and – with modalities) K.OA.3 (Decompose numbers) K.OA.5 (Fluently + and – within 5) K.OA.2 (Add and subtract word problems using modalities) 7-8 weeks Unit 6:  Combinations within 10 K.OA.1 (Represent + and – with modalities) K.OA.3 (Decompose numbers) K.OA.5 (Fluently + and – within 5) K.OA.4 (Combinations of 10 using modalities) K.OA.2 (Add and subtract word problems using modalities) 6-7 weeks Unit 7: Teen Numbers K.NBT.1(Compose and decompose teens with modalities) K.OA.1 (Represent + and – with modalities) K.CC.2 (Count on from any number) 5-6 weeks Unit 8: Flat shapes K.G.2 (Name shapes) K.G.6 (Compose shapes from smaller shapes) K.G.1 (Describe locations of shapes) K.G.4 (Analyze and compare shapes) K.G.5 (Build shapes from components) 2 weeks Unit 9: Solid Shapes K.G.2 (Name shapes) K.G.6 (Compose shapes from smaller shapes) K.G.1 (Describe locations of shapes) K.G.4 (Analyze and compare shapes) K.G.5 (Build shapes from components) K.G.3 (flat or solid) 3 weeks

How can you support your student’s mathematical understanding at home?

Kindergarten mathematics ideas may seem very simple to adults, but are actually quite complex for young children.  The act of counting a pile of objects involves many ideas such as, using one-to-one correspondence, keeping track of the objects, and correctly naming the sequence of numbers.  Counting a pile of objects is a different and simpler skill than counting out a group from a pile of objects.  Throughout the school year, students transition from counting all objects to composing and decomposing groups of objects, recording addition and subtraction equations accordingly.  Having your child count and group objects will support his or her ability to visualize quantities and put them together or take them apart in various situations.  You can also read counting books with your child and discuss how the pictures and numbers are related.

For the second critical area, students are to name and compare two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes and be able to use positional language to describe their locations.   Having students find shapes in the real world and describing where they are located, will give students practice with geometric language.

To view the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics in their entirety, go tohttp://www.corestandards.org/Math/.

Reference:

National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA) & Council for Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). (2010). The common core state standards for mathematics.  Washington, D. C.: NGA & CCSSO.